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10博备用网址_退休?退什么休?

  随着越来越多的人选择工作到70多岁,提前退休的流行趋势似乎正在渐渐衰退。

  英国银行业集团汇丰(HSBC)最近发布了一份题为《退休前景》(Future of Retirement)的报告。在此之前,该行在21个国家和地区对2.1万人进行了问卷调查,是同类研究中规模最大的一次。

  汇丰银行发现,在70多岁人群和60多岁人群中,分别有11%和三分之一的人仍然在从事某种有酬工作。在美国等地,这一比例甚至更高。在美国,70多岁的人有19%仍在工作。

  上世纪70-80年代,各个公司针对大量年轻人失业的现实,提出了提前退休计划,目的是在公司内部给更年轻的员工腾出岗位。为汇丰银行撰写这份报告的牛津大学老年研究所(Oxford Institute of Ageing)所长莎拉•哈珀(Sarah Harper)指出,有证据表明,一些人正开始放弃提前退休的选择。

  她表示:“自那时以来,提前退休已经根植于公司文化和人们的期望中。但是,也有证据表明,很多提前退休的人都感到后悔。”

  这项研究发现,在40多岁和50多岁的人群中,只有12%的人希望早退休。相比之下,在接受调查的60多岁和70多岁人群中,有16%确实提前退休了。在所有国家和地区中,只有德国、韩国和香港希望提前退休的人比以前高一些。

  汇丰集团保险业务常务董事白乐达(Clive Bannister)表示,现在60多岁和70多岁的人往往比以前的人更健康,这就意味着,如果他们愿意,就能够工作更长时间。这份报告计算出,60岁以上人群交纳的有酬工作个人所得税达397亿英镑(合784亿美元)。报告没有给出前几年的可比数字。

  白乐达表示:“从健康的角度讲,现在的70岁就相当于过去的50岁。这份报告发现,退休生活达到甚至好于人们的预期,而医疗的进步为这一点提供了保障。”

  在这项研究中,接受调查的60到79岁人群认为自己身体比较好、不错或非常健康的人占到86%。相比之下,只有14%的人认为他们身体不好或者很差。

  加拿大70多岁人群健康比例最高,为76%。英国为73%,美国为72%。

  不过,即使是拉丁美洲和亚洲,接受调查的70多岁人群称自己健康欠佳的人也较少。

  这项研究还发现,年纪较大的人每年从事价值数十亿英镑的无偿义务工作,还在照顾亲属方面做出了贡献。

  哈珀教授指出:“六七十岁的人对我们的社会来说至关重要,如果没有了他们,家庭、社区都会分崩离析,工作场所也会在一定程度上受到影响。”

  The popularity of early retirement appears to be waning as more people opt to work on into their 70s.

  HSBC, the UK-based banking group, yesterday released a report entitled the “Future of Retirement”, that was the result of questioning 21,000 people in 21 countries, the largest study of its kind.

  The bank found that 11 per cent of people in their 70s and a third of those in their 60s are still in some kind of paid employment. The figure is even higher in some places like the US, where 19 per cent of those in their 70s are still working.

  Early retirement schemes were introduced by companies in the 1970s and 1980s as a response to mass youth unemployment, with the intention of making room in companies for younger workers. Sarah Harper, of the Oxford Institute of Ageing, which wrote the report for HSBC, said there was evidence that some people are beginning to reject early retirement as an option.

  “Early retirement has since become an embedded part of the culture and of people's expectations. But there is also evidence that many who retired early have regretted it,” she said.

  The study found that only 12 per cent of people in their 40s and 50s expect to take early retirement. This compares with 16 per cent of those in their 60s and 70s questioned in the report who had actually taken early retirement. Only in Germany, South Korea and Hong Kong did a higher proportion of people expect to retire earlier than had been the case in the past.

  Clive Bannister, group managing director of insurance for HSBC, said that people in their 60s and 70s were often fitter and healthier than had been the case in the past, meaning they could work longer if they desired. The report calculates people aged over 60 pay £39.7bn ($78.4bn, �8.3bn) in taxes from paid employment. No comparable figures for earlier years were given.

  Mr Bannister said: “In terms of health the age of 70 is the new 50. The report found retirement is as good or better than people's expectations and advances in healthcare have sustained this.”

  Those questioned in the study aged between 60 and 79 years old who described themselves as being in fair, good or very good health was 86 per cent, compared with 14 per cent who believed they suffered poor or very poor health.

  The highest proportions of healthy people in their 70s were in Canada with 76 per cent, the UK with 73 per cent and the US with 72 per cent.

  But even those in their 70s questioned in Latin America and Asia reported low levels of poor health.

  The study also found older people did unpaid voluntary work worth billions of pounds a year and also contributed as carers for relatives.

  “People in their 60s and 70s are vital to our society and if they disappeared from that, families and communities and to a certain degree workplaces would fall apart,” said Prof Harper.

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